COMPARATIVE STUDY Of PROVISION ON CRIME AGAINST HUMANITY: DAMYANTI KANWAR RATHORE

COMPARATIVE STUDY Of PROVISION ON CRIME AGAINST HUMANITY

Author:  Ms. Damyanti Kanwar Rathore

Assistant Professor

S.S. Jain Subodh Law College, Jaipur.

ISSN: 2582-3655

Abstract

Several countries in their domestic laws specifically codified ‘crime against humanity’ as a crime and provide punishments accordingly, but India still is unable to provide such laws in the national laws.  Still, India has adopted several crimes and provides punishments thereto which are separately main ingredients of crime against humanity under the  Rome  Statute. 

Crimes against humanity have often been committed as part of State policies, but they can also be perpetrated by non-state armed groups or paramilitary forces. Unlike war crimes, crime against humanity can also be committed in peacetime, and contrary to genocide, they are not necessarily committed against a specific national, ethnic, racial or religious group.

 Keywords:  Crime, Humanity, International Law, Indian Law

Introduction

A few nations in their residential laws explicitly arranged ‘unspeakable atrocity’ as a wrongdoing and give disciplines as needs are, however, India still can’t give such laws in the national laws. Still, India has embraced a few wrongdoings and gives disciplines thereto which are independently fundamental elements of unspeakable atrocity under The Rome Statute. By the examination of the wrongdoings, which are explicitly pronounced as an unspeakable atrocity under the Rome Statute and the Indian arrangements with respect to the indictment and disciplines of those violations can be depicted as under:

Violations against mankind allude to explicit wrongdoings submitted with regards to a huge scale assault focusing on regular folks, paying little heed to their nationality. These wrongdoings incorporate homicide, torment, sexual viciousness, subjugation, oppression, implemented vanishing, and so on.

Wrongdoings against mankind have regularly been submitted as a component of State strategies, yet they can likewise be executed by non-State furnished gatherings or paramilitary powers. Not at all like atrocities, unspeakable atrocity can likewise be perpetrated in peacetime, and in spite of massacre, they are not really carried out against a particular national, ethnical, racial or strict gathering.

Early advancement

Nuremberg Tribunal:

In spite of this early utilization of the term, the principal arraignments for violations against humankind occurred after the Second World War in 1945 preceding the International Military Tribunal (IMT) at Nuremberg. The sanction setting up the IMT of Nuremberg characterized violations against humankind as:

… murder, eradication, oppression, expulsion, and other insensitive acts carried out against any non-military personnel populace, previously or during the war, or arraignments on political, racial or strict grounds in execution or regarding any wrongdoing inside the purview of the Tribunal, regardless of whether infringing upon the residential law of the nation were executed.

Tokyo Tribunal:

The Tokyo Charter of 1946, setting up the International Military Tribunal for the Far East, fused a similar meaning of violations against humankind.

The International Law Commission:

After the Nuremberg and Tokyo preliminaries of 1945-1946, the following global court with ward over violations against humankind would not be set up for an additional five decades. Be that as it may work proceeded on building up the meaning of violations against mankind. In 1947, the International Law Commission was charged by the United Nations General Assembly with the definition of the standards of universal law perceived and strengthened in the Nuremberg Charter and judgment, and with drafting a ‘code of offenses against the harmony and security of humanity’. Finished fifty years after the fact in 1996, the Draft Code characterized wrongdoings against mankind as different heartless acts, i.e., murder, killing, torment, subjugation, mistreatment on political, racial, strict or ethnic grounds, regulated separation, subjective expulsion or persuasive exchange of populace, self-assertive detainment, assault, implemented prostitution and other cruel acts submitted in an orderly way or on a huge scale and induced or coordinated by a Government or by any association or gathering. This definition differs from the one used in Nuremberg above, where the criminal acts were to have been committed “before or during the war”, thus establishing a nexus between crimes against humanity and armed conflict.[1]

International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY):

In 1993, the UN Security Council established the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), to investigate and prosecute genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity which had taken place in the former Yugoslavia. The definition of crimes against humanity employed by the ICTY revived the original ‘Nuremberg’ nexus with armed conflict, connecting crimes against humanity to both international and non-international armed conflict,[1] and expanded the list of criminal acts used in Nuremberg to include imprisonment, torture, and rape, see Article 5 of the ICTY Statute.

International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR):

In 1994, the UN Security Council established the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR), pursuant to the genocide that had taken place from April – July 1994. In the ICTR Statute, the linkage between crimes against humanity and armed conflict of any kind was dropped. Rather, the requirement was added that the inhumane acts must be part of a “systematic or widespread attack against any civilian population on national, political, ethnic, racial or religious grounds”, see Article 3 of the ICTR Statute. Because of the internal nature of the conflict in Rwanda, crimes against humanity would likely not have been applicable if the nexus to the armed conflict had been maintained.[2]

The International Criminal Court and the Rome Statute:

The permanent International Criminal Court, which came into force in 2002, offers another, slightly different definition of crimes against humanity. In its founding treaty, the Rome Statute, crimes against humanity are defined as follows;

For the purpose of this Statute, ‘crime against humanity’ means any of the following acts when committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against any civilian population, with knowledge of the attack:

(a) Murder;

(b) Extermination;

(c) Enslavement;

(d) Deportation or forcible transfer of population;

(e) Imprisonment or other severe deprivation of physical liberty in violation of fundamental rules of international law;

(f) Torture;

(g) Rape,

(g)-1 sexual slavery,

(g)-2 enforced prostitution,

(g)-3 forced pregnancy,

(g)-4  enforced sterilization, or

(g)-5  any other form of sexual violence of comparable gravity;

(h) Persecution against any identifiable group or collectivity on political, racial, national, ethnic, cultural, religious, gender as defined in paragraph 3, or other grounds that are universally recognized as impermissible under international law, in connection with any act, referred to in this paragraph or any crime within the jurisdiction of the Court;

(i) Enforced disappearance of persons;

(j) The crime of apartheid;

(k) Other inhumane acts of a similar character intentionally causing great suffering, or serious injury to body or to mental or physical health.[3]

The last two elements for each crime against humanity describe the context in which the conduct  must take place.  These  elements  clarify the requisite participation in and knowledge of a widespread or systematic attack against a civilian population. However,  the last element should not be interpreted as requiring proof that the perpetrator had knowledge of all characteristics of the attack or the precise details of the plan or policy of the State or organization. In the case of an emerging widespread or systematic attack against a civilian population, the intent clause of the last element indicates that this mental element is satisfied if the perpetrator intended to further such an attack.

CRIME AGAINST HUMANITY OF MURDER ARTICLE 7 (1) (A)

Elements

1.  The perpetrator killed one or more persons.

2.  The  conduct was  committed  as  part of a  widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

3.  The perpetrator knew that the conduct was part of or intended the conduct to be part of a widespread or systematic attack against a civilian population.

GENOCIDE

International  law

Before 1944 the term “genocide” did not exist. It is a very specific term that refers to violent crimes committed against groups with the intent to destroy the existence of the group. Human rights, as laid out in the United States Bill of Rights or the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948 concern the rights of individuals.[4]

In 1948 the United Nations approved the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. This Convention establishes “genocide” as an international crime, which signatory nations “undertake to prevent and punish.” makes it a crime to commit certain acts “with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial, or religious group.” The Convention lists five acts that can amount to genocide including “killing members of the group,” acts that would cause serious physical or mental harm to the group, and other acts that relate to the ability to have children so as to threaten the group’s future or existence. A person who performs these acts with the intent to destroy one of the groups listed above has committed a crime, regardless of whether they are the leader of a country or an ordinary citizen.

Genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such:

  1. Killing members of the group;
  2. Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;
  3. Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part;
  4. Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;
  5. Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group.

US-

The Proxmire Act is contained in Chapter 50A of the US law code, Title 18 (Crimes and Criminal Procedure), Part I (Crimes). Section 1091 deals specifically with Genocide. The law implements the United Nations’ Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (UNCG) in the U.S.

It states in part:

  • (a) Basic Offense. – Whoever, whether in time of peace or in time of war, in a circumstance described in subsection (d) and with the specific intent to destroy, in whole or in substantial part, a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group as such –
    1. kills members of that group;
    2. causes serious bodily injury to members of that group;
    3. causes the permanent impairment of the mental faculties of members of the group through drugs, torture, or similar techniques;
    4. subjects the group to conditions of life that are intended to cause the physical destruction of the group in whole or in part;
    5. imposes measures intended to prevent births within the group; or
    6. transfers by force children of the group to another group; or attempts to do so, shall be punished as provided in subsection (b).

(c) Incitement offense. –  Whoever… directly and publicly incites another to violate subsection (a) shall be fined not more than $500,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.[5]

The Genocide Act 1969criminalised destruction carried out in the UK, in accordance with the 1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crimes of Genocide (“the Genocide Convention”), which didn’t oblige states to set up extra-regional or general purview over slaughter. In 1998, the Rome Statute gave the ICC purview over the wrongdoing of decimation.

INDIAN PENAL LAWS AND GENOCIDE AS A CRIME

India endorsed the Genocide Convention on August 27, 1959. It likewise approved the Geneva Conventions of 1949 on November 9, 1950, however, didn’t sign and hosts not yet become a get-together to Additional Geneva Protocols of 1977. It has likewise not marked and hosts not yet become a gathering to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Destruction as wrongdoing isn’t given any legitimate acknowledgment in the laws of our nation including Indian Penal Code, 1860, however, there are arrangements which make a few demonstrations which perhaps generally taken to be in the idea of decimation as blamable offenses.

The main conceivable exemption as far as conceptualizing violations against a collectivity is the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989 which gives a splendid ethnography of wrongdoings against individuals from a particular network by really fifteen unique manners by which SC/ST are denied of their privileges.

Mutual brutality is characterized as ‘demonstration of commission or oversight which establishes a booked offense.’ The planned offense incorporates IPC offenses murder, assault, offending humility of a lady and so on and offenses underact, for example, Arms Act,1959, Explosives Act,1884, Places of Worship(Special Provisions) Act,1991, Religious Institutions (Prevention of Misuse ) Act,1988.

The lawful mutual savagery in Gujarat in 2002 under the previous National Democratic Alliance (NDA). To actualize this guarantee, the United Progressive Alliance (UPA) has presented the Communal Violence (Prevention, Control, and Rehabilitation of Victims) Bill, 2005. Indeed, even before the presentation of the 2005 Bill, there was a progression of bills coursed by both the state and common society which tried to manage parts of mass violations.

Against Sikh Riots and Babri Masjid Demolition

The 1984 enemy of Sikh slaughters was a reasonable instance of state complicity. Different reports[34] have clarified that it was demonstrations of exclusion and commission at the extremely top which brought about the demise of more than 1000 Sikhs, assault of Sikh ladies and the pulverization of property having a place with Sikhs. While the Reports are astonishing in their portrayal of the sorts of brutalities dispensed on the Sikh people group, what underlies its message is that the ‘liable’ remain those in charge of the state. Obligation streams downwards from the then Home Minister PV Narasimha Rao to the cops who either decide to sit idle or effectively supported the criminal components.

As for the Babri Masjid destruction, it’s very evident that it could never have occurred if the State government was not criminally complicit in enabling the crowd to collect there on December 6, 1992, and continue to wreck the Babri Masjid unhindered.

Ethnic Cleansing of Kashmiri Pandits

In the Kashmir district, around 300 Kashmiri Pandits were executed during September 1989 to 1990, in different occurrences. In mid 1990, nearby Urdu papers Aftab and Al Safa called upon Kashmiris to wage jihad against India and requested the ejection of all Hindus deciding to stay in Kashmir. In the next days conceal men ran in the boulevards with AK-47 shooting to kill Hindus who might not leave. A notification was put on the places, all things considered, guiding them to leave inside 24 hours or pass on.

Since March 1990, appraisals of between 250,000 to 300,000 pandits have moved outside Kashmir because of mistreatment by Islamic fundamentalists in the biggest instance of ethnic purging since the segment of India.

Massacre in Orissa

From late August through October 2008, sorted out Hindu fanatic gatherings submitted methodical assaults murdering in excess of 100 individuals, generally Christians, in the eastern India province of Orissa. Generally stressing, the Hindu psychological militants liable for Orissa’s savagery stay everywhere and have expressly taken steps to rehash their assaults after December 25, 2008. Three Hindu fanatic gatherings – the RSS, VHP, and the Bajrang Dal – are liable for this present fall’s viciousness, crushing somewhere in the range of 4500 homes and consuming 147 temples in India. The dead are for the most part Christians and some moderate Hindus.

CRIME AGAINST HUMANITY OF DEPORTATION OR FORCIBLE TRANSFER OF POPULATION

International  scenario

Article 7 (1) (d) of the Rome statute defined the deportation

Elements

1.  The perpetrator deported or forcibly transferred, without grounds permitted under international law, one or more persons to another State or location, by expulsion or other coercive acts.

2.  Such person or persons were lawfully present in the area from which they were so deported or transferred

3.  The perpetrator was aware of the factual circumstances that established lawfulness of such presence.

4.  The conduct was committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack dire against a civilian population.

5.  The perpetrator knew that the conduct was part of or intended the conduct to be of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.[6]

Deportation has been recognized as a crime against humanity in each of the major international criminal instruments prior to the ICC, including the Nuremberg Charter, the Tokyo Charter, the Allied Control Council Law No. 10, and the statutes of the international criminal tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda. The long-standing definition of “deportation” as a crime against humanity included the crime of forced population transfer within a state’s borders.

The Statute of the ICC, which came into force on July 1, 2002, includes among its definition of crimes against humanity “deportation or forcible transfer of population.” According to one commentator, forcible transfer of population was specifically included “to make it expressly clear that transfers of populations within a State’s borders were also covered.” The crime of forcible transfer of population includes “the full range of coercive pressures on people to flee their homes, including death threats, destruction of their homes, and other acts of persecution, such as depriving members of a group of employment, denying them access to schools, and forcing them to wear a symbol of their religious identity.”

In order to be recognized as a crime against humanity under the requirements put forth by the ICC, the forced transfer of population.

Human Rights Provisions Relevant to Forced transfer-

Article 12 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), to which Iraq became a party in 1971, establishes that everyone shall have “the right to liberty of movement and freedom to choose his residence.”107 The freedom to choose one’s residence incorporates the right not to be moved.108 Restrictions on movement and choice of residence are permitted only when provided by law and for reasons of “national security, public order (ordre public), public health or morals, or the rights and freedoms of others,”

In a 1997 resolution, the Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities of the U.N. Commission on Human Rights affirmed “the right of persons to remain in their own homes, on their own lands, and in their own countries.”

Ethnic cleansing refers to the policy of “rendering an area ethnically homogeneous by using force or intimidation to remove targeted persons or a given group from the area.”110 Ethnic cleansing is not defined in any international criminal convention or under customary international law

Worldwide law not just determines the constrained and discretionary exchange of populaces as an unspeakable atrocity, yet additionally accommodates a solution for the people misled by these constrained exchanges. People persuasively moved from their homes infringing upon global principles are qualified to come back to their home territories and property, a privilege is known as the “right to return.”

INDIA

The Immigrants (Expulsion from Assam) Act, 1950 had been instituted to accommodate the ejection of specific foreigners from Assam. The Act has enabled the focal government to arrange removal of certain immigrants the Central Government is of conclusion that any individual or class of people, having been customarily occupant in wherever outside India, has or have, regardless of whether previously or after the beginning of this Act, come into Assam and that the stay of such individual or class of people in Assam is negative to the interests of the overall population of India or of any area thereof or of any Schedule Tribe in Assam, the Central Government may by request.

The Immigration (Carriers’ obligation) Act, 2000 was instituted with the goal of defying the issue of the appearance of an enormous number of travelers with no legitimate travel reports by the transporters in the negation of the Passport Act, 1920. Where the skilled authority is of the feeling that any bearer has acquired an individual contradiction of the arrangements of the Passport (Entry into India) Act, 1920 and rules made thereunder into India, he may by request force a punishment of rupees one lakh on such transporter subject to the arrangement that no structure will be passed without giving the transporter a chance of being heard in the issue.

Part III of the Constitution of India manages different basic rights. Article 21 of this part bargains mind. Right to life and Personal Liberty. It gives that no individual will be denied of his life and individual freedom with the exception of as indicated by the strategy built up by law. The State is under an obligation to secure the life and freedom of each person.[7]

CRIME AGAINST HUMANITY OF EXTERMINATION

International Law– Article 7 (1) (b) of Rome statute

Elements

1.  The perpetrator killed one or more persons, including by inflicting conditions of life calculated to bring about the destruction of part of a population.

2.  The conduct constituted or took place as part of, a mass killing of members of a civilian population.

3.  The  conduct was committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

4.  The perpetrator knew that the conduct was part of or intended the conduct to be part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

INDIA

— India  has  a  long  history  of   extermination,  the  major  issues  of them are as under:

(A)  Violence against Muslims in  India: There have been periodic instances of violence against Muslims in  India or communal riots in India since its separation from Pakistan in  1947,  frequently  in the form of mob attacks on Muslims by  Hindus that form a pattern of sporadic sectarian violence between the Hindu  and  Muslim communities.  Over  10,000 people have been killed in Hindu-Muslim communal violence since  1950  in  6,933  instances  of communal violence between 1954 and 1982.

A portion of the significant episodes of such shared mobs are for instance in 1983 Nellie slaughter was happened in the province of Assam, It has been portrayed as one of the biggest and most extreme massacres since World War II, with an expected loss of life of 5,000. Notwithstanding that during the 1969 Gujarat riots, it is assessed that 630 individuals lost their lives, in 1980 in Moradabad, an expected 2,500 individuals were executed, in 1989 in Bhagalpur, it is evaluated almost 1,000 individuals lost their lives in brutal assaults. In 1992 Bombay revolts the demolition of the Babri Mosque by Hindu patriots drove straightforwardly to the 1992 Bombay Riots. In the year 2002 in Gujarat viciousness, the Hindu fanatics completed demonstrations of outrageous savagery against the Muslim minority populace.

(B) JallianwalaBagh slaughter: The JallianwalaBagh slaughter, otherwise called the Amritsar slaughter, was a fundamental occasion in the British standard of India. On 13 April 1919, a horde of peaceful dissenters, alongside Baishakhi explorers, had accumulated in the JallianwalaBagh garden in Amritsar, Punjab to challenge the capture of two pioneers in spite of a time limit which had been as of late pronounced. On the sets of Brigadier-General Reginald Dyer, the military discharged on the group for ten minutes, coordinating their slugs to a great extent towards a couple of open doors through which individuals were attempting to run out. The figures discharged by the British government were 370 dead and 1200 injured. Without divine legitimation, moderate governmental issues can take a populist turn which apparently grasps vote based system, however, debases it by methods for a mythic perfect Section 299 of IPC. of the People, of the Nation, seen as a stone monument with an extraordinary world strategic. Patriotism here assumes the part of supplication. The more it accept such a viewpoint, the more it, as well, moves from majority rule government.

CRIME AGAINST HUMANITY OF ENSLAVEMENT

International law — Article 7 (1) (c) of Rome statute

Elements

1.  The perpetrator exercised any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership over one or more persons, such as by purchasing, selling, lending or bartering such a person or persons, or by imposing on them a similar deprivation of liberty.

2.  The conduct was committed as part of a  widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

3.  The perpetrator knew that the conduct was part of or intended the conduct to be part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population

INDIA

The history of slavery in India is complicated. slavery as the forced appropriation of labour, skill or sexual gratification appears to have existed in various forms from the  pre-500  BCE period,  though never as a  legitimate and generally acceptable widespread practice. Historical consensus points to an intensification of slavery under  India’s  Islamic  period.

In ancient  Rig-Veda, three types  of slavery  are  mentioned, which suggests that slavery  was  present  in  pre-Islamic India.

Some  modern  scholars  appear  to  treat  most  claims  of   slavery  by  Persianor  Arabic  chroniclers  as  propaganda  or  exaggeration  for  military  and  political glorification, whereas similar arguments  are  not  applied  to  the  textual  claims  of the epics, the Smriti , or other pre-Islamic Indian texts. The arrival of the  British East India Company and  the  imposition of  crown rule  following the  Indian  Rebellion  in  1857  along  with  the  influence  of   the  British  anti -slavery  society of   William  Wilberforce  eventually  brought  slavery  and  the  slave  markets  to  an  end  in India.[8]

Slavery was abolished  in  modern India  by the Indian Slavery of 1843.  Provisions  of   the  Indian  Penal   Code  of   1861  formally  tried  to  abolish slavery  in  India  by  making  the  enslavement  of   human  beings  a  criminal   offence. The  Indian  Slavery  Act,  1843,  also  Act  V  of  1843, was  an  act  passed  in  British  India under  East  India  Company  rule  on  the  7th  Of  April,  1843,  which  outlawed  many economic  transactions  associated  with  slavery.

CRIME AGAINST HUMANITY OF TORTURE

International law — Article 7 (1) (f) of Rome Statute

Elements

1.  The  perpetrator  inflicted  severe  physical  or  mental  pain  or  suffering  upon  one  or

more persons.

2.  Such person or persons were in the custody or under the control of the perpetrator.

3.  Such pain or suffering did not arise only from, and was not inherent in or incidental

to, lawful sanctions.

4.  The  conduct  was  committed  as  part  of  a  widespread  or  systematic  attack  directed

against a civilian population.

5.  The perpetrator knew that the conduct was part of or intended the conduct to be part

of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.[9]

India-

Torture  is  not  criminalized  in  Indian  law as a separate or special  offence.  India’s  refusal to  ratify  the UN Convention against  Torture  was  primarily  based on the contention  that its laws  were  adequate enough to deal   with  crimes  committed  by the representation the State.

Section  330  and  331  of  the  Indian  Penal  Code have  been  enacted  to  punish  those who voluntarily  cause  hurt or grievous  hurt  with  an  object  to  coerce the sufferer to confess to his  guilt  or  give  information  respecting  the  commission  of   a  crime  or  a misconduct,  or  to restore  property  or  satisfy  any  claim  or  demand  respecting  thereto.

section  176  of  the  CrPC. This  section  is  designed  to  provide  a check on the working of  the police or to calm any  al arm that has  been created  in the  mind of   the  public  in  cases  of   death  occurring  under  some  specific  circumstances.  The two provisions  in the Penal Code also  falls  short of  covering all  aspects of torture, as defined  in  the  International  Convention  against  Torture,  a  document  Indi a  has signed  11 years  before  and  failed  to  ratify  t ill  today.  India has not ratified the Convent ion  against

Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, but has signed

the Convention on 14 October 1997. A draft Bill against torture is in consideration by the government.[10]

CRIME AGAINST HUMANITY OF RAPE

International Law — Article 7 (1) (g)-1 of Rome statute

Elements

1.  The perpetrator invaded the body of a person by conduct resulting in penetration, however slight, of any part of the body of the victim or of the perpetrator with a sexual  organ, or of the anal or genital opening of the victim with any object or any other part of the body.

2.  The invasion was committed by force, or by threat of force or coercion, such as that caused by fear of violence, duress, detention, psychological oppression or abuse of power, against such person or another person, or by taking advantage of a coercive environment,  or  the  invasion  was  committed  against  a  person  incapable  of  giving genuine consent.

3.  The  conduct  was  committed  as  part  of  a  widespread  or  systematic  attack  directed  against a civilian population.

4.  The perpetrator knew that the conduct was part of or intended the conduct to be part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population. This part of the statute  mainly  deals  with  the  sexual   offences  against  women.  Sexual  offences constitute an al together  different  kind  of  crime  which  is  the  result  of  perverse  mind. In India  there  is  a  separate  heading  in  t he  Indian  Penal  Code  for  sexual  offences,  which encompasses sections  375  (Rape), 376  (punishment  for  rape), 376A  (Intercourse  by  a man with  his wife during separation ), 376B (Intercourse by public  servant with a woman in  his custody), 376C (Intercourse by superintendent of   jail, remand  home etc.) and 376D (Intercourse  by  any  member  of  the  management  or  staff  of   a  hospital  with  any  woman  in that  hospital ).  But  the  other  sexual  offences  mentioned  in  the  Rome  Statute  are  not  thesubject-matters  of   Indian  Penal   Code.  The  Indian  scenario  regarding  the  other  sexual offences can  be portrayed as under.[11]

CRIME AGAINST HUMANITY OF SEXUAL SLAVERY

International  law — Article 7 (1) (g)-2 of Rome statute

Elements

1.  The perpetrator exercised any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership over one or more persons, such as by purchasing, selling, lending or bartering such a person or persons, or by imposing on them a similar deprivation of liberty.

2.  The perpetrator caused such person or persons to engage in one or more acts of a sexual nature.

3.  The  conduct  was  committed  as  part  of  a  widespread  or  systematic  attack  directed against a civilian population.

4.  The perpetrator knew that the conduct was part of or intended the conduct to be part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

CRIME AGAINST HUMANITY OF ENFORCED PROSTITUTION

Article 7 (1) (g)-3

Elements

1.  The perpetrator caused one or more persons to engage in one or more acts of a sexual nature by force, or by threat of force or coercion, such as that caused by fear of violence, duress, detention, psychological oppression or abuse of power, against such person or persons or another person, or by taking advantage of a coercive environment or such person’s or persons’ incapacity to give genuine consent.

2.  The perpetrator or another person obtained or expected to obtain pecuniary or other advantage in exchange for or in connection with the acts of a sexual nature.

3.  The  conduct  was  committed  as  part  of  a  widespread  or  systematic  attack  directed against a civilian population.

4.  The perpetrator knew that the conduct was part of or intended the conduct to be part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

INDIA

Sexual  Slavery  or  Enforce  Prostitution: 

Forced prostitution, also known as involuntary prostitution, is prostitution or sexual slavery that  takes  place  as  a  result  of   coercion by a third  party. The terms “forced  prostitution” or  “enforced  prostitution” appear in international and humanitarian conventions but have been insufficiently  understood  and inconsistently applied.

Human  trafficking  outside  India  for  the  purpose  of   sexual  slavery, although illegal under Indian  law,  remains  a significant  problem. People  are  frequently  illegally  trafficked through  India  for the  purposes  of  commercial  sexual   exploitation. Women  and  girls  are trafficked  within  the  country  for  the  purposes  of   commercial  sexual  exploitation  and forced  marri age  especially in those areas where  the sex  ratio is highly  skewed in favour of men. Human trafficking  in  India  results  in  women  suffering  from  both  mental   and  physical issues. Mental issues  includes  disorders  such  as  PTSD,  depression  and  anxiety.  The lack of   control   women  have  in  trafficking  increases  the  risk  of   victims  likeness to suffer  from mental  disorders. Women who are forced into trafficking are at a higher risk for HIV, TB, and  other STD’ s.  Condoms  are  rarely  used  and  therefore  there  is  a  higher  risk  for  victims to suffer  from an STD.  The  Government  of   India  penalises  trafficking  for  commercial  sexual exploitation through  the  Immoral  Trafficking  Prevention  Act  (ITPA). Prescribed  penalty  under the ITPA  –  ranging  from  seven  years’   to  life  imprisonment  –  are  sufficiently  stringent  and commensurate with those for other grave crimes.[12]

CRIME AGAINST HUMANITY OF ENFORCED STERILIZATION

International sanreio  –Article 7 (1) (g)-5 of Rome Statute

Elements

1.  The perpetrator deprived one or more persons of biological reproductive capacity.

2.  The conduct was neither justified by the medical or hospital treatment of the person or persons concerned nor carried out with their genuine consent.

3.  The  conduct  was  committed  as  part  of  a  widespread  or  systematic  attack  directed against a civilian population.

4.  The perpetrator knew that the conduct was part of or intended the conduct to be part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

INDIA

Obligatory disinfection, otherwise called constrained sterilization.Forced cleansing projects are government arrangements which endeavor to drive individuals to experience careful sanitization. Across the board or efficient constrained disinfection has been perceived as a wrongdoing against humani ty by the Rome Statute in the Explanatory Memorandum. This notice likewise characterizes the purview of the International Criminal Court. Regardless of universal understanding concerning the barbarism and lawlessness of constrained disinfection, it has been recommended that few nations keeps on pursuing such projects.

India’ s highly sensitive situation somewhere in the range of 1975 and 1977 incorporated a family arranging activity  that started in April 1976 through which the administration would have liked to India’s consistently expanding populace. This program utilized publicity and money related motivators to persuade residents to get disinfected. Individuals who consented to get sanitized would get land, lodging, and cash or credits. Due to this program, a great many men got vasectomies and significantly more ladies got tubal ligations. In any case, the program concentrated more on sanitizing ladies than men. An article in The New York Times titled “For Sterilization, Target Is Women” states, “There were 114,426 vasectomies in India in 2002-03, and 4.6 million tubal ligations, the butt-centric activity on ladies, however ligation is a progressively entangled activity.” Despite the way that disinfecting men is an increasingly straightforward strategy, the administration still decided to concentrate on sanitizing ladies. Child of the Prime Minister at the time Indira Gandhi , Sanjay Gandhi was to a great extent accused for what ended up being a bombed program. A solid reaction against any activity related with family arranging pursued the exceptionally dubious program, which proceeds into the 21st century. Other sexual brutality of relative gravity:Some  of  the  other  sexual  violence  of comparative gravity prescribed under various Indian  laws are:

1.  Molestation (IPC Section-354).

2.  Sexual Harassment (IPC Section-509).

3.   Importation of  Girls (IPC Section-366B).

4.   Indecent Representation of  Woman Act, 1986.[13]

CRIME AGAINST HUMANITY OF PERSECUTION

International sanreio –Article 7 (1) (h) of Rome statute

Elements

1.  The  perpetrator  severely  deprived,  contrary  to  international  law, one  or  more

persons of fundamental rights.

2.  The perpetrator targeted such person or persons by reason of the identity of a group or collectivity or targeted the group or collectivity as such.

3.  Such  targeting  was  based  on  political,  racial,  national,  ethnic,  cultural,  religious, gender as defined in article 7, paragraph 3, of the Statute, or other grounds that are universally recognized as impermissible under international law.

4.  The  conduct  was  committed  in  connection  with  any  act  referred  to  in  article  7, paragraph  1, of the Statute or any crime within the jurisdiction of the Court.

5.  The  conduct  was  committed  as  part  of  a  widespread  or  systematic  attack  directed against a civilian population.

6.  The perpetrator knew that the conduct was part of or intended the conduct to be part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.[14]

INDIA

India  is  a  secular  country  wi t h  no  officially  recognized  religions.  India’s Constitution under  Article 25 provides that  “all persons are equally  entitled to freedom of conscience  and the  right  freely  to  profess,  practice  and  propagate  religion,”  subject  to public  order,  morality  and  health.  The  Constitution  explicitly  prohibits  discrimination  on the  basis of  religion.  Even  despite  nominal  protection  granted  under  India’s  Constitution, the  religious  minorities  in  India,  particularly  Christians  and  Muslims,  suffer  religious persecution daily.

Background  of  Persecution  in  India:  Religious  Persecution  is  not  a  new  phenomenon in  India.  Christians,  as  well  as  Muslims,  have  faced  widespread  attacks  for  decades preceding  India’s  anti -conversion  legislation.  Hinduism  and  Islam  are  India’s  two  most prominent  religions.

India  became  predominately  Hindu  after  the  British  “partition  of the  subcontinent  and  loss  of   Pakistan’s  largely  Muslim  population”  in  1947. Currently, “Hindusmake  up  about three-fourths  of   India’s  population.” “Muslims, however, are still  the  largest  single  minority faith,”  and  Christians  form  an  important  minority  as well.

Regional  Reports  of  Persecution  in  India:  In  addition  to  the  issue of   religious discrimination  on  a  national   scale,  various  Indian  States  are  particularly  intolerant  toward religious minorities. Christians  in India  faced widespread  violent attacks throughout 2006 and  2007.  Most  Indi an  states  like  State  of   Madhya  Pradesh,  Gujrat,  Kerala,  Rajasthan, Orissa,  Uttar  Pradesh,  Chattisgarh, Andhra  Pradesh, Karnataka,  Jharkhand,  Maharashtra, Manipur and Tamil  Nadu saw acts of   violence  in  various times..  There  is  a  general   lack  of   media  reports  prior to the  1990s,  but the number  of   reports  swelled  in  the  late  1990s,  as  humanitarian  and  religious organizations began to take increasing notice. Incidents of  persecution have typically  focused on clergy, converts, congregation members, missionaries  and  Christian  students.  Unfortunately, religious  persecution  continues  to plague  India  today,  as  evidenced  by  count less  reports  of   violence  against  Christians  and  other  religious  minorities  by  the  media  and  non profit organizations. In May 2007, “at l east 4,000 Christians  f rom across Indi a were temporarily arrested  in  New Delhi[15]

Legal  framework of India regarding persecution:

A.  Constitutional provisions: India is a secular country with  no officially recognized

religions. India’s Constitution  under  Article  25  provides  that  “all persons  are equally  entitled  to  freedom  of   conscience  and  the  right  freely  to  profess,  practice and  propagate  religion,”  subject to public order,  morality  and  health. The Constitution explicitly prohibits  discrimination  on  the basis of  religion.  Article 19 of   the Constitution  further  protects  freedom  of   speech,  expression  and  association. Additionally,  Article  51  imposes  a  positive  duty  on  citizens  to  “promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all  the people of  India transcending religious diversities.”  Under Article 14  to 18  Indian  Constitution guarantees “Right to equality”  for all   its citizens.

B.  Legislative provisions: However, recent federal and state laws directly  counter the freedom  that  the  Constitution  provides,  resulting  in  widespread  persecution towards religious  minorities. There are some of  these discriminatory  laws:

a.  Anti-Conversion  Laws: Seven of  India’s  twenty-eight  States  have “anti-conversion” laws.

b.  Federal  Acts  Infringing  on  Religious  Liberty: Foreign  Contribution  Regulation Act (FCRA) of  1976.

c.  Personal Status Laws: India has different  personal status  laws  for the various religious  communities,  accommodating  “religion-specific laws in matters of marri age,  divorce, adoption,  and  inheritance.”  Thus  there  is  a  Hindu  law, a Christian  law, a Parsi law, and a Muslim  law—all  legally  recognized  and judicially  enforceable. None of   these are  exempt  from national  and  state  level legislative powers and social reform obligations as laid down  in the Constitution.

d.  Religious  Discrimination  in  Reservation  Policy:  The  Dalits, or the “Scheduled Castes,” are  seen  as  the  “untouchables”  of   the  Hindu community.  Dalits  are  not all owed  to  study  or read  the  Dalits  who  embrace  Christianity or Islam are currently excluded from the legal  category  of   ‘Scheduled  Castes’,  which  is  used of  other Dalits,  including those who convert to Buddhism or Sikhism. discrimination  and  humiliation  suffered  by  Dalits,  including  the  Scheduled  Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of  Atrocities) Act, 1989.[16]

ENFORCED  DISAPPEARANCE  OF  PERSONS: 

International sanerio-  Article 7 (1) (i) of Rome statute

Elements

1.  The perpetrator:

(a)  Arrested, detained or abducted one or more persons; or

(b)  Refused  to  acknowledge  the  arrest,  detention  or  abduction,  or  to  give information on the fate or whereabouts of such person or persons.

2.  (a)  Such arrest, detention or abduction was followed or accompanied by a refusal to acknowledge that deprivation of freedom or to give information on the fate or whereabouts of such person or persons; or

     (b)  Such refusal was preceded or accompanied by that deprivation of freedom.

3.  The perpetrator was aware that:

      (a)  Such arrest, detention or abduction would be followed in the ordinary course of events by a refusal to acknowledge that deprivation of freedom or to give  information on the fate or whereabouts of such person or persons;or

    (b)  Such refusal was preceded or accompanied by that deprivation of freedom.

4.  Such  arrest,  detention  or  abduction  was  carried  out  by,  or  with  the  authorization, support or acquiescence of, a State or a political organization.

5.  Such refusal to acknowledge that deprivation of freedom or to give information on the fate or whereabouts of such person or persons was carried out by, or with the authorization or support of, such State or political organization.

6.  The perpetrator intended to remove such person or persons from the protection of the law for a prolonged period of time.

7.  The  conduct  was  committed  as  part  of  a  widespread  or  systematic  attack  directed against a civilian population.

8.  The perpetrator knew that the conduct was part of or intended the conduct to be part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

In  international  human  rights  law,  a  forced disappearance (or enforced disappearance) occurs  when  a  person  is  secretly  abducted  or imprisoned  by a state or political  organization  or  by  a  third  party with the authorization, support, or acquiescence  of  a state or political organization,  followed  by  a  refusal  to acknowledge  the  person’s  fate  and  whereabouts,  with  the  intent  of   placing  the  victim outside  the  protection  of  the  law. According to  the  Rome  Statute  of   the  International Criminal Court,  which  came  into  force  on  1 July 2002,  when  committed  as  part  of   a widespread  or  systematic  attack  directed  at  any  civilian  population,  a “forced disappearance”  qualifies  as  a  crime  against  humanity  and,  thus,  is  not  subject  to  a  statute of   limitations.

The  International  Convention  for  the  Protection  of  All  Persons  from Enforced Disappearance, adopted by the UN General Assembly on20 December 2006, also states The Convention  establishes  a  Committee  on  Enforced  Disappearances, which  will  be  charged  with  important  and  innovative  functions  of   monitoring and protection  at  international  level.  Currently, an  international  campaign  of   the  International Coalition  against  Enforced  Disappearances  is  working  towards  universal  ratification  of the Convention.[17]

Indian  scenario  regarding  enforced  disappearance:

 Disappearances  work  on  two levels:  not only do they  silence opponents and critics who have disappeared,  but they also create  uncertainty and  fear in  the wider  community, silencing  others  who  would  oppose and  criticise. Disappearances entail the violation of many fundamental  human  rights.  For the disappeared  person,  these  include  the  right  to liberty, the  right to  personal   security and  humane  treatment  (including  freedom  from  torture), the  right  to  a  fair  trial,  to legal counsel  and  to  equal  protection  under  the  law,  and  the  right  of  presumption  of   innocence among  others.

Enforced  Disappearances  in  Punjab:  Punjab  is  a  state  in  the  northwest  of   India and  the  only  state  in  India  with  a  majority  Sikh  population.  Between  1984  and 1995  Punjab’s  security  forces  allegedly  killed  thousands  of   Sikhs  as  part  of   a brutal   counter-insurgency  operation  characterized  by  systematic  and  widespread human  rights  abuses,  including  torture,  extrajudicial  executions,  and “disappearances.”

Enforced Disappearance in Jammu and Kashmir: The reported number of enforced  disappearances  in  Indian-administered  Kashmir  are  8,000  to  10,000, this year  al one  Jammu  and  Kashmir State  Human  Rights  Commission  (SHRC)  has recommended  the  identification  of   all  those  2,156 people  buried in unmarked graves  in  north  Kashmir. It  is  primarily  because  of   its  overwhelming  military  presence  in  Kashmir.  The  Indian government  empowers  its  military through special security  legislations like  the Armed Forces Special Powers Act  (AFSPA)  and  the  Public Safety  Act  (PSA), granting  them sweeping impunity  for  acts carried  out under  these laws,  which  in  turn  facilitate  the bringing about of  enforced disappearances and other human rights abuse.[18]

CRIME AGAINST HUMANITY OF APARTHEID

International scenario — Article 7 (1) (j) of Rome statute

Elements

1.  The perpetrator committed an inhumane act against one or more persons.

2.  Such act was an act referred to in article 7, paragraph 1, of the Statute, or was an act of a character similar to any of those acts.

3.  The perpetrator was aware of the factual circumstances that established the character of the act.

4. The conduct was committed in the context of an institutionalized regime of systematic  oppression and domination by one racial group over any other racial group or groups.

5.  The perpetrator intended to maintain such regime by that conduct.

6.  The  conduct  was  committed  as  part  of  a  widespread  or  systematic  attack  directed against a civilian population.

7.  The perpetrator knew that the conduct was part of or intended the conduct to be part of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population.

INDIA

Indi a’ s  contribution  to  the  struggle  against  apartheid  has been  highly  praised  by  the  leaders  of   the  freedom  movement  in  South  Africa.  Nelson Mandela,  the  outstanding  leader  of  that  movement,  paid  a  handsome  tribute  to  India  and its  leaders  in  a  letter  smuggled  out  of   Robben  island  prison  in  1980.  Great appreciation has  also  been  expressed  by  African  leaders  for  the  role  of   India  since  1946  in promoting international  support  for  the  freedom  struggle  in  South  Africa,  and  its  many  actions  and initiatives  in solidarity with the oppressed people of  that country.

Gandhiji  in  South  Africa:  Nelson  Mandela  in  a  letter  from  prison in 1980 wrote  that:

“The  oldest  existing  political  organisation  in  South  Africa,  the  Natal   Indian  Congress,

was  founded  by  Mahatma  Gandhi  in  1894.Gandhiji , moreover,  was  a  great  publicist  who  recognised  that  while  the  success  of Satyagraha  depended  primarily  on  the  courage  and  sacrifice  of   the  resisters,  it  should obtain  the  understanding and sympathy of  public opinion.  He  attracted  the  support  of   a number  of whites  in  South  Africa  who  soon  became  supporters  of   the  African  cause.

CRIME AGAINST HUMANITY OF OTHER INHUMANE ACTS

International scenario Article 7 (1) (k)

Elements

1.  The  perpetrator  inflicted  great  suffering,  or  serious  injury  to  body  or  to  mental  or  physical health, by means of an inhumane act.

2.  Such act was of a character similar to any other act referred to in article 7, paragraph 1,of the Statute.

3.  The perpetrator was aware of the factual circumstances that established the character of the act.

4.  The  conduct  was  committed  as  part  of  a  widespread  or  systematic  attack  directed against a civilian population.

5.  The perpetrator knew that the conduct was part of or intended the conduct to be part  of a widespread or systematic attack directed against a civilian population[19]

INDIA

Other inhumane acts of a similar character  intentionally causing great suffering, or  serious  injury  to  body  or  to  mental  or  physical  health: Two  of   the  other  named crime  against humanity,  which  has  taken  an  important  place  in  the  history  of   crime against humanity, are terrorism and genocide.

Terrorism: The 8th report on terrorism in India published  in 2008 defined terrorism as the  peace time  equivalent  of  war crime. An act of terror in India  includes  any intentional  act of  violence  that  causes  death, injury  or  property  damage,  induces  fear,  and is  targeted  against  any  group  of   people  identified  by  their  political,  philosophical, ideological, racial, ethnic, religious or any other nature. Terror  groups  in  India:  SATP  has  listed  180  terrorist  groups  that  have  operated  within India  over  the  last  20  years,  many  of  them  co-listed  as  transnational  terror  networks operating  in  or  from  neighboring South  Asian countries  such as Bangladesh,  Nepal  and Pakistan.

Preventive  Detention  Act  (PDA)  of  1950,  which  authorised detention  for  up  to  12 months  by  both  the central  and state  governments, if necessary to prevent an individual from  acting in  a  manner  prejudicial  to  the defence or security of  India,  India’s  relations foreign  powers,  state  security  or  maintenance  of  public  order,  or  maintenance  of essential  supplies  and  services. 

Unlawful  Activities  (Prevention)  Act (UAPA)in 1967,which gave  the central government  broad  powers  to ban  as “unlawful”  any association involved with any action, “whether by  committing  an  act  or  by  words,  either  spoken or Written”

Maintenance of Internal Security Act (MISA)  in 1971,which more or less retained  the provisions  of   the  PDA.  The  Act  gave  wide  powers  of preventive  detention,  search  and  seizure  of   property  without  warrants,  telephone  and wiretapping etc. The  Act was  invoked  liberally during the  nation-wide Emergency (1975-77),  especially  targeting  the  political  opponent  of   the  party  in  power.

National  Security  Act  (NSA)  in  1980.  The  new  Congress government  under  Indi ra  Gandhi  introduced  the  NSA,  which  remains  in  effect  even today.  The  NSA  restored  many  of   the  provisions  of   the  PDA  and  the  MISA.  The  stated purpose  of   the  NSA  is  to  combat  “anti -social  and  antinational  elements  including secessionist,  communal  and  pro-caste  elements  and  elements  affecting  the  services essential  to  the  community.”Terrorist  Affected  Areas  (Special  Courts)  Act  (TAAA)  was  enacted  by  Parliament  in 1984.  The  Act  established  special  courts to adjudicate certain  “scheduled  offences” related  to terrorism  in areas designated  by  the  central government, for specified  time periods, as “terrorist  affected.” The  statute  required  the  special  courts to hold proceedings  in  camera unless  the prosecutor  requested otherwise,  and  authorized the courts  to  take measures  to  keep  witness identities secret upon a request  by either  the prosecutor  or the witnesses  themselves.

Terrorist  and  Disruptive  Activities (Prevention)  Act  (TADA)  appeared  in  1985.  It explicitly  defined  a  series  of   new, substantive terrorism-related offences of general  applicability,  which  could  be prosecuted by state governments through out the country without any  central   government  designation that  the  area  in  which  the  offence  took  place  was  “terrorist  affected,”  unlike  its  predecessor TADA.

Armed  Forces  (Special  Powers)  Act,  of  1958  was  passed  on  11  September  1958 to  confer  certain  special  powers  to the  members  of  the  armed  forces  in  disturbed  areas  in the states of  Assam and Manipur, and after an amendment in 1972, it was extended to the whole  northeastern  region.  Under  the  Act,  armed  forces  personnel  were  given broad powers in a  disturbed  area  to  shoot  any  person  acting  in  contravention  of  the  law but after  giving due  warning,  search  any  [who  has committed  cognizable  offence]  place without warrant, and  destroy  any  place  from  where  attacks  on  armed  forces  are  made.

Armed  Forces  (Punjab  and  Chandigarh)  Special Powers Act, of 1983:  This Act enabled  the  Governor  of   the  state  to  declare the whole or parts  of  the  state  as “disturbed.” The aim was to entrust special powers to the security forces to quell violence in  the  state.  It all owed the  armed  forces  personnel  to  arrest without  warrant  any  person who had committed or about whom  “reasonable  suspicion” existed was about to “commit a cognizable offence.[20]

CONCLUSION

Although crimes against humanity are as old as humanity,’ the concept of a cognizable offense first surfaced in condemnations of the massacres of the Armenians by what was then the Ottoman Empire and other atrocities committed in World War I. After this brief but abortive appearance, the juridical history of this  offense really  begins at Nuremberg. The term “crimes against humanity” first appeared in positive international law  in  Article 6(c)  of the  Charter of the International Military Tribunal (IMT), which defined crimes against humanity as a constellation of prohibited acts committed against a civilian population The category of crimes against humanity was added to the Charter because it was feared that under the traditional formulation of war crimes, many of the defining acts of the Nazis would go unpunished.’  The crimes against humanity count in the Nuremberg Indictment encompassed acts committed by Nazi perpetrators against German victims, who were thus  of the  same nationality as  their oppressors, or against citizens of a state allied with Germany. While the crime of aggression-deemed “the greatest menace of our times -was the centerpiece of the Charter and the Nuremberg Trial the notion of crimes against humanity has proven to be the real legacy of Nuremberg, albeit with chronic definitional confusion. .there are various law on international law in this respect but in India there is no sufficient law in this topic. Like on genocide there is no direct law, and signed many international treaty and convection but did not ratified them so India need a law in which there is a direct provision for crime against humanity.

                                                                    BIBLIOGRAPHY

Primary sources:

  • Constitution of India,1950
  • Indian Penal Code, 1860
  • Code of Criminal Procedure,1973

Secondary Source


[1]www.uio.no/studier/emner/hf/iakh/HIS4319/h16/tusan_crimes-against-humanity.pdf

[2]www.uio.no/studier/emner/hf/iakh/HIS4319/h16/tusan_crimes-against-humanity.pdf

[3] Ibid

[4]https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/genocide Accessed on 05.10.2019@15:00

[5]https://www.ushmm.org/confront-genocide/justice-and-accountability/ben…/the-law Accessed on 20.10.2019@2:00

[6]https://www.hrw.org/reports/2003/iraq0303/Kirkuk0303-03.htm

[7]https://www.lawctopus.com/academike/genocide-indian-perspective/

[8]https://www.icc-cpi.int/NR/rdonlyres/336923D8-A6AD…/ElementsOfCrimesEng.pdf

[9]www.internationalcrimesdatabase.org/Crimes/CrimesAgainstHumanity Accessed on 20.10.2019 @15:00

[10]https://www.lawctopus.com/academike/genocide-indian-perspective/

[11] ibid

[12]https://sabrangindia.in/article/human-trafficking-crime-against-humanity

[13]ttps://www.hrw.org/news/2011/11/10/sterilization-women-and-girls-disabilities

[14]www.internationalcrimesdatabase.org/Crimes/CrimesAgainstHumanity

[15]https://www.hrw.org/reports/2004/ij/ictr/4.htm

[16]https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/171754.pdf

[17] ibid

[18]https://www.law.berkeley.edu/…/Working-Paper-1-India-Right-to-a-Remedy-151027…

[19]www.internationalcrimesdatabase.org/Crimes/CrimesAgainstHumanity

[20]www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/Factsheet32EN.pdf

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