HUMAN TRAFFICKING: AN EVER-GROWING CRIME
Author: Mr. Shikhar Kaushal
Symbiosis Law School, Hyderabad.
Human trafficking is a growing international crime and is the third-greatest criminal undertaking in the world. It is one of the most dangerous and problematic issues in the world and is a silent crime being conducted in this prosperous world in the downtrodden as well as the rich sections of the society. Every year thousands of women, men and children are victims of trafficking in their country or abroad. The purpose of exploitation is for prostitution, forced labor or service, slavery, servitude or removal of the organ, with the intention to have monetary profit. It is a severe crime against humanity. It’s a 32 billion dollar industry. Human trafficking also called exploitation is the action or fact of threatening someone unfairly in order to benefit from their work.
In most of the cases, trafficked persons are people who suffer from poverty and unemployment. Human trafficking still remains a crucial problem in India because of lack of awareness, poverty and lack of education. India has become a hub now for the traffickers to export girls and women from Nepal and Bangladesh for the sole purpose of commercial sexual exploitation. According to the NGOs, an estimate of 20 to 65 million Indians gets affected by this. A lot of Indian women get trafficked to the Middle East and Europe for the same reason. According to official reports, only 10% of the trafficking in India is international, 90% of it is inter-state.
The aim of the paper is to make the reader aware of the issue and the ways in which it has been carried out over the past decade and the conditions in which the people are living. The paper also explores how the subject affects the economy and market of the country and who are the easier targets to be victims and lastly how can it be stopped.
Trafficking in people is a shame to human regality and an assault on their liberty. Regardless of whether we are discussing about trafficking of women and kids by terrorists in the Middle East, the sex dealing of young girls tricked from their homes in India, the abuse of homestead specialists in North America, or the subjugation of anglers in Southeast Asia for example Thailand and so forth., the casualties of this wrongdoing each have a name. And they each have been raided of their most fundamental human rights. Human trafficking, the minute this word rings a bell, the main thing that one can consider is sex dealing. Well it is a type of Human Trafficking though not the only one. Reliably consistently a large number of men, women and children become victim of this trafficking in their country or abroad. Human Trafficking is a grave offence against mankind. “Human trafficking called also exploitation is the action or fact of threatening someone unfairly in order to benefit from their work”. Throughout the years new forms/dimensions of Human Trafficking have come into viewpoint and therefore it is a developing industry in contemporary occasions. Human Trafficking is done for making speedy cash as well as for various reasons which will be examined in the paper. Individuals are dealt for an assortment of reason; men are dealt into hard work employments, most youngsters are dealt for work positions in materials, farming and angling enterprises and women and young girls are dealt into the business sex industry, for example prostitution or different types of sexual abuse. Human dealing is the demonstration of deceiving, baiting or driving an individual to work for monetary values. It’s anything but another idea rather had existed on the planet, in various societies in various structures most likely by the term subjection, generally human dealing and subjugation are very little not the same as one another. However, human dealing does not just incorporate just subjugation, rather is more extensive. Over the latest decade, the issue of present day subjugation has moved from being a negligible stress to a standard issue, with basic advances in measurements of open care, official responsibility, and besides, explicit research. From 1865 through 1990 oppression experienced issue utilization, just to be rediscovered as human dealing and adequately got as a reason celebre. Reports and pictures of human dealing show up frequently in paper, TV, web and so on. The previous decade has seen noteworthy global scene, mindfulness and battle against the issue and advancement has anyway been made.
Human Trafficking as said before is definitely not a contemporary issue like cyber wrongdoing rather an advanced rearticulation of a well-established human story of social imbalance that render individuals helpless, poor and illiterate. It involves a similar social and financial space in which stay other people who are adequately well off, powerful and anxious to utilize and manhandle work and collections of others. Thus there is dependably a diligent interest for slaves in contemporary world. The casualties of Human Trafficking like other people are qualified for the rights revered in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the rights contained in treatise that have been sanctioned by their own states, for instance, the International on Social and Cultural Rights. These instruments secure a progression of rights that in principle ought to be sufficient to guarantee a noble presence of a Human Being. We would hence see in the paper about the global perspective of the 3rd biggest grossing crime industry in the world.
CAUSES OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING
The main causes of human trafficking are as follows:
- Poverty: Poverty is a major factor in human trafficking industry. The victims look for any means to get out of the curse of poverty. “This helpless condition of the victims gives ample scope to the traffickers to entrap the victims in their nets. The traffickers lure the victims with better life facilities by way of moving to foreign countries. Large populations of Albania, Belarus, Bulgaria, China, Nigeria, Thailand and Ukraine are affected by extreme poverty and exploited by Traffickers.
- Political Condition: Political instability, militarism, generalized violence or civil unrest increase in trafficking as well. The destabilization and scattering of population increase their vulnerability to unfair treatment and abuse via trafficking and forced labor.
- Social and cultural practices: Most of the women and girls are generally exploited and abused due to social and cultural practices and are forced to live in perilous condition. They are more vulnerable to human trafficking as they get little opportunity of upward mobility. In our society a single mother, divorced woman, widowed and sexually abused woman and young girls are easy prey to the traffickers because of the social stigma.
- Demand of Cheap Labor: Demand of cheap labor particularly in restaurants and kitchens help traffickers to exploit employees who are often initially promised a safe work space and a steady salary, though they are paid less than minimum wage and are forced to work on overtime. As the victims of trafficking are unable to protest for having very few alternatives, the business owners never cease to practice these illegal norms. “According to ILO there are more than 11.7 million people working as forced labor in Asia for specific reason”.
- Child Marriage: In our country child marriage is the easiest way of human trafficking. In village community it is a matter of shame for the poor parents who are unable to arrange the marriage of their daughter. So they easily accept the offer of the traffickers who approach the poor families with marriage proposal without dowry, rather with cash rewards (between Rs. 1000- Rs.5000 on an average). After marriage, the girls are sold and resold until they reach ultimate destination. “In South Africa range between 28,000 and 30,000 persons approximately half of whom are between 10-14 years of age, half of whom are between 15-18 years of age are trafficked for commercial sex”.
- Mutilation: People are trafficked for their organs, particularly kidneys. It is a rapidly growing field of commercial activity. The life of the victim is at risk as operations are carried out in clandestine conditions with no medical care at all. “According to NCRB (2015), 15 cases were registered under the Transplantation of Human Organ Act, 1994 in India”.
- Sex-Tourism: In recent time globalization has played an important role for the growth of tourism business and entertainment industries. As a result, sex related trades like sex tourism have grown rapidly. At the same time rising male migration to urban areas as well as stressful working of the BPO sector workers have also contributed to growing demand for commercial sex in the cities. Statistics say that many women are trafficked from Philippines, Thailand to Netherland and Spain for sex tourism. The communication revolution occurred with the development of internet, increases the growth of sex tourism industry.
- Child Labor: Child labor means work performed by a child under the age of 14 for economic purpose. Children are deprived of their childhood and regular attendance to school. Though all the work done by children is not detrimental or exploitive, but this practice is hazardous and harmful to the physical and mental health of a child. Across the globe, traffickers supply child for use in forced labor activities. Some of the children are trafficked into the commercial sex industry. “In Ghana, about one in every six children aging between 4 and 17 is engaged in child labor”.”
- Migration: Migration means the movement by people from one place to another with an objective mind. When people take irregular means for migration, they are easily victimized by human traffickers which pose a great danger to children and young woman in particular. Migrants from Bangladesh are sometimes trafficked and sold into prostitution or forced labor.
HOW IS IT DONE?
This is most likely done through a lot of methods, for example, actuating individuals into a superior existence with better extravagances and less experience. In the present occasions employments for people is diminishing step by step and because of that more individuals are jobless today. Despite the fact that Keynes says in his hypothesis that the industrialists/business people are keener on giving occupations than utilizing innovation however the same isn’t valid in contemporary occasions. The essential mentality of a business person is to acquire to such an extent benefit as could be allowed and in less venture. Innovation is winding up progressively accessible and reasonable also, a superior alternative for speculation nowadays. Because of this result individuals are frantic of for employments henceforth what they really get actually is absolutely inverse from what they anticipate. The minute the trafficker traps the unfortunate casualty he/she has no other alternative than to give consent else they are being tormented, many even getaway yet the individuals who get captured may even be killed on the spot so as to create terror in the brains of the other unfortunate victims. In any case, ordinarily these methods don’t work for the trafficker or the dealer can’t initiate the individual into the business because of which mighty methods are frequently utilized. Commanding methods as a rule is brought out through Kidnapping of the individual. At outrageous, exploited people may be constrained or forced into entering a business relationship, for example, if an unfortunate casualty is sold by family part to dealers, undermined with mischief to her or her family, or really grabbed or stole by dealers. Subsequently these strategies run from physical and sexual maltreatment to mental what’s more, lawful pressure. Traffickers or dealers normally seize travel papers like passports and other IDs or on the other hand detaching them in the working environment so that they can bring their contact with the outside world to an end. Traffickers frequently undermine that if dealing unfortunate casualties endeavor to escape, they will be captured or deported by the government officials and strict actions will be taken against them and the victims often believe it to be true as it’s not their country and almost all of them are illiterate and unaware of their rights. Traffickers additionally may expose unfortunate casualties to obligation servitude by, for instance, retaining their wages to cover affirmed travel or everyday costs. Dealing unfortunate casualties in such circumstances may get little or none of the wages they should acquire and may never know the particular measure of their purported debt. Different types of compulsion utilized by dealers incorporate complex mental intimidation, which happens, for instance, when a dealer picks up control of an injured individual by incurring on the injured individual an example of conduct proposed to cause dread and bewilderment through the utilization of strategies like verbal maltreatment, mortification, and hardship of sustenance, rest and therapeutic consideration.
CONDITIONS OF VICTIMS
It is clear that the general state of the people is poor. Dealers control their unfortunate casualties living and working conditions by physically restricting them, seizing their IDs, and terrifying their families. Dealers likewise abuse exploited people fears that specialists will indict or depot them in the event if they look for help. Exploited people might be compelled to work in lawful or unlawful and regularly hazardous territories, including massage parlors, sweatshops, farming organizations, and individuals’ homes. Reported Human Trafficking cases have included exploited people, for example, children compelled to beg for money in urban cities, work in cover shops, and are forced to take part in sexual acts with grown-ups, and women/girls held in bondage like conditions as household hirelings, club artists and prostitutes and men are compelled to work in farming segments as labors.
The persons who come now in the field of dealing are once in a while bolstered, washed so their proprietors are free from any additional consumption. In some cases they need to swing to great conditions explicitly in Sex Trafficking in which the women/girls must be pretty/good-looking with the goal that they can be sold for sex, generally the dealer may confront misfortunes, as they are most importantly costly, even after that the full undertaking isn’t over as they need to break their soul, make her feel helpless, so she doesn’t ponder getting away from the area. However in case of construction sites, household hirelings and agrarian labors the equivalent isn’t taken care about much. Consequently they face a penurious hygiene and lifestyle.
Casualties of human trafficking regularly endure hunger, are all the more as often as possible casualties of HIV/AIDS and their extreme presence is characterized by restraint and each known type of hardship. Because of which HIV is contracted and spread among different people who take profits by traffickers, which turns into another issue. They are tormented, assaulted ambushed and killed. They are held in supreme control by their captors and deprived of their poise. Some get exposed to constrained premature birth, perilous working conditions, poor nourishment, and embarrassment. Many die because of the conditions they have to live in and those who fortunately survive to get physically or mentally scarred forever. Once liberated, many experience health-related problems.
HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN INDIA
As indicated by US state office India is both a source and travel nation for dealing just as a standout among the most famous trafficking destination in South-East Asia. It is assessed that 10 percent of India’s dealing in people is worldwide while 90 percent is within the country itself i.e. interstate, that’s what differs it from the other trafficking countries. Given India’s size, dealing will in general happen crosswise over state fringes. Of the women and young girls dealt from Nepal, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Cambodia and Myanmar. A significant number of the Indian women dealt out of the nation end up either in the Middle-East for sexual misuse or in Europe, USA, or the Middle-East as local and low gifted work. India’s sex industry incorporates somewhere in the range of 2 million sex workers, 20 percent which are under age 16.
The idea of trafficking varies over the 29 states of India. Dealt people are abused in a wide assortment of ways. These incorporate utilization of unfortunate casualties for reinforced work, household work, farming work, asking, organ exchange, adjustment, constrained relational unions and tyke fighter. While dealing for any of these reasons can be found in numerous different nations, reinforced work and forced marriages are more common in India than most different nations. The New York Times as of late gave an account of broad human dealing of young women in the province of Jharkhand and on the dealing of devastated young girls into India from neighboring Nepal. It reports that continuous indigence has been the main reason for all this. Numerous helpless women and young girls are attracted by guarantees of work and that they will be paid a reasonable amount of money also for it, and some parents who are in desperate need of money are forced to sell their own daughters to the traffickers in exchange of money. Fast urbanization and the relocation of extensive quantities of men into India’s developing urban areas make a business opportunity for business sex and shabby household worker. India’s wealth is likewise a factor, attracting European ladies into India’s commercial sex business.
A few months back an instance of a Saudi ambassador blamed for holding hostage, beating and over and over assaulting two Nepali ladies employed as residential workers in his extravagance condo close to New Delhi hit the news. A few months back, police protected Theresa Kerketa from one of the apartments. For 4 years continuously, she was kept here by a local organization for residential housekeepers.
It should likewise be featured that with regards to dealing Men are additionally focused by the sex dealing industry too. The interest for young fellows has been expanding as time passes as the sex and pornography industry keep on extending. In 2014, TejaswiniPagadala investigated Hyderabad’s male business sex laborers. These men take into account high rich female customers who search for “modest sex.” Often the abandoned zones, for example, behind transports, parks, metro building locales, railroad stations fill in as “centers” for the sex exchange industry. Men from assorted monetary and instructive foundations fill in as companions, knead specialists, escorts, and so forth. As depicted so strikingly in the Oscar-winning film, Slumdog Millionaire, Children are frequently picked to be dealt for illicit exercises, for example, organ exchange, as they are viewed as increasingly powerless. They are purposely harmed. Arms and legs are persuasively removed, others are brutally blinded. The groups likewise pour corrosive on to kids’ bodies abandoning them with suppurating wounds. The more they are tormented or tormented, the more compassion they gain when they ask. Youngsters are prepared to approach specific sorts of individuals and utilize certain quirks, to separate considerably more cash. There are numerous youngster homeless people who are not disfigured, but rather those with the most noticeably bad wounds profit, winning up to multiple times the sum that millions in India make due on every day. Obviously the kids, as a rule, don’t perceive any of their profit. These are given over to the group aces, and if a youngster does not make their objective that day they are beaten and tormented. Organ exchange is likewise normal when dealers trap or power kids to surrender an organ. DNA India uncovers that At least 300,000 kids crosswise over India are tranquilized, beaten and compelled to ask each day, in what has turned into a multi-million rupee industry constrained by human dealing cartels. As indicated by the Indian National Human Rights Commission, up to 40,000 youngsters are stolen in India consistently, of which no less than 11,000 remain untraced. 20 minor young men and 13 young ladies were safeguarded from Chhattisgarh’s Bastar locale few days back. They were sold as reinforced workers. Multi-year-old Manjumatha was safeguarded from her very own dad. Her legs overflowing discharge from the corrosive copies dispensed by her poor person father. As indicated by information for 2015, discharged by as of late by the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), Assam has risen as the dealing center of the nation. Hindustan Times reports that with 1494 cases, the state represents 22% of the complete revealed instances of dealing crosswise over India. Assam likewise has the most noteworthy number of youngster dealing – 1317 cases, which represent 38% of the national figure. The figures present an irritating picture. DigambarNarzary, executive of Nedan Foundation said to the journalist, “The NCRB figures are just of those which have been accounted for to the police and FIRs enrolled. The genuine number of dealing cases in Assam would be a lot higher. The vast majority of the exploited people have a place with poor innate families who are baited away by dealers with a guarantee of good training, better occupation prospects or with a guarantee of marriage”. A helpline worked by the NGO, which is working in 8 locales of Lower Assam, records 4-5 instances of missing kids and grown-ups each day. Repeating floods, militancy, and destitution, the absence of work roads lead numerous unfortunate casualties and their families to surrender to the draw of dealers who guarantee a superior future far from the state.
SairaKhatun was saved by the Delhi Police from a red light area. The 12-year-old young lady from Assam had been taken by her own grandma to the capital of India and got her engaged with the sex trade.
In 2005, another minor young lady from Assam’s Kokrajhar region was dealt with Nepal and sent to Saudi Arabia with the help of fake documents. Following eight awful years, she was protected in 2013 and sent back home.
SukurmoniMormu, an evacuee young lady from Kokrajhar was protected about a month prior to a family unit in Uttarakhand state in northern India, where she had been filling in as a household worker. She was tricked by a high school kid from her neighborhood promising her a great job in Delhi.
These are a few instances of human trafficking from our own country. However, there are loads of unreported cases which including might be thousands. The interest of modest work, residential hireling, sex laborers is developing and with that, the risk is also increasing. Workers, minorities, individuals from the poor financial foundations are regularly focused to draw by some dim agencies. So the opportunity has already come and gone to comprehend the gravity of this appalling wrongdoing and make a move.
At a national scale, the Immoral Trafficking Prevention Act, 1956 [ITPA] has serious punishments for those occupied with Trafficking of women and kids and is India’s most far reaching hostile to dealing resolution. Be that as it may, notwithstanding requiring the indictment of dealers, it additionally takes into account the capture of the unfortunate casualties themselves. Buttressing the ITPA are the Indian Constitution and the Indian Penal Code, which coupled together, have in excess of 20 provisions that make dealing unlawful. At long last, there are a few different laws that bargain with specific kinds of dealing [e.g. reinforced work, dealing in organs] or especially powerless gatherings [e.g. youngsters, booked ranks and tribes]. Regardless of the powerful legitimate reason for the arraignment of dealing violations, a significant number of the Indian government’s demonstrations don’t adequately condemn the customers and profiteers of the exchange, and a few don’t characterize ‘dealing’ in essence in people. This is on the grounds that there is no settled national rule or standard for intercession or law authorization in anticipating human dealing. In addition, a considerable lot of the laws identifying with dealing are conflictingly implemented, and a portion of their recommended punishments are not adequately stringent. At long last, there has been “little advancement in tending to reinforced work” through existing rules. Legitimate resolutions and arrangements additionally require the state to give defensive administrations to unfortunate casualty, including pay and safe house. Concerning remuneration law, in a Supreme Court case, ShriBodhisattwaGautam v. Miss SubhraChakraborty (1996), makes a decision about decided that remuneration can be granted paying little heed to whether a fine framed piece of the sentence or not. Besides, in another Supreme Court case, Delhi Domestic Working Women’s Forum versus Association of India and others (1995), it was resolved that “remuneration can be granted to the unfortunate casualty even without conviction and notwithstanding amid pendency of preliminary.” Moreover, in 2008, the Sec. 357 of the Code of Criminal Procedure (CrPC) was corrected to incorporate the accompanying arrangement, calling for states to set up payment plans. “Each State Government in a joint effort with the Central Government will set up a plan for giving assets to the reason for remuneration to the person in question or his wards that have endured misfortune or damage because of the wrongdoing and require recovery.” This alteration was motivated to a great extent by the endeavors of Andhra Pradesh who, in 2006, set up the “Relief and Rehabilitation Fund” for casualties of assault, trafficking, kidnapping, dowry deaths, and other related violations. Remedies are granted to unfortunate casualties in monetary value running from Rs. 5,000 to Rs. 10,000.
PROFITS MADE BY THE INDUSTRY- A $32 Billion INDUSTRY
Many have guaranteed that human trafficking is exceptionally lucrative and even the third most beneficial criminal industry in the world. The essence of human trafficking presents incredible difficulties in deciding a precise and dependable estimation of its market profit. To ascertain the measure of its income, we should at least know; the quantity of dealt people, the benefits made by dealers at different phases of the dealing continuum, the measure of cash the guilty parties spent on documentation, defilement, transportation, and different expenses to guarantee an effective task. Sadly, more often than not such data is inaccessible or dependent on guesstimates determined from little examinations or different snippets of data.
A few organizations have endeavored estimations of the benefits made by traffickers utilizing diverse time spans and strategies, and in this way bringing about altogether different cases. A few assessments were accounted for without notice of how they had been determined. Numerous researchers have commented this was a common and reprimanded numerous creators who, referring to each other, state that human dealing is the world third most rewarding criminal industry with yearly benefits achieving billions of dollars, however, don’t give information sources or subtleties of the technique they utilized help their cases. Human Trafficking is consequently a gainful business in the world currently. These benefits equal those of the illicit deal and exchange of medications and weapons. A few specialists point to human dealing as the quickest developing of these underground enterprises. The development of and benefits from human dealing are identified with furious challenges in the worldwide economy, where an organization or an industry’s entrance to modest works key to picking up a financial favorable position over contenders. At the point when cheap labor is hard to acquire, a few people and ventures are eager to swing to human trafficking. As the world’s economies become progressively related, the open door hole among countries and people groups becomes more extensive. Occupants of poor nations are frequently edgy, and they are eager to relocate to look for some kind of employment. They are trained to tolerate partition from their families, unforgiving working conditions, and questionable prospects, all of which put them in danger of misuse by dealers. Traffickers, then again, are happy to hazard their own apprehension by the government officials and in detainment to make money for a living—often truly beneficial even in poor nations.
INDUSTRIAL AND ECONOMY IMPACT
Human Trafficking influences the worldwide economy as source nations lose some portion of their works. On the other hand, the travel and destination nations manage the expense of unlawful migration. Human trafficking conveys penury to the source nations and builds the joblessness in the destination nations. Additionally human dealing change designs in the work showcase. Numerous substantial organizations like to utilize more women and kids subsequently because of a lower wage than men.
“Increasing the cost of human trafficking is the main way to affect the supply side of the market”. Making new openings for work such that subject of the creating nations can have the chance of legitimate employments; will expand the opportunity cost of taking part in the criminal movement. It is very clear that hindering wrongdoing is simpler and proficient than controlling it, to diminish the human trafficking.
Human Trafficking is the third largest crime after drug and arm dealing. This industry creates every year about 32 billion USD, and includes practically all nations in the world. Human trafficking tears apart the nearby economies and obliterates the people’s lives. Human trafficking obliterates the worldwide economy; the source nations as well as the destination nations. Human trafficking being a worldwide issue requires a coordinated effort from all the nations to cooperate and endeavor to lessen it till disposal.
Dealing in people, particularly children and women, is a type of cutting edge subjugation and requires an all-encompassing, multi-sectorial way to deal with the complex measurement of the issue. It is an issue that damages the rights and poise of the people in question and in this way requires basically a human rights point of view while chipping away at its annihilation. In the battle against dealing with governmental associations, non-legislative associations, common society, global bodies, us, all need to assume a vital job. Law can’t be the main instrument to deal with all issues. From the previous lines, it is evident that human trafficking is triumphing among the women and kids in India and due to that, there is a critical need of logical inquiry to break down this issue from various points of view and references and investigate the elements which are in charge of dealing among the children and women.
As indicated by Report made by US State Department in 2017, in 2016 there were just 5,808 indictments and 3,160 convictions all through the world. This implies for each 800 individuals dealt, just a single individual was convicted.30 Countries which as of now approve the Palermo Protocol need to work more and to keep the oath they took to protect their people by fighting against the human trafficking offense. As indicated by the US Report in 2007 there are two primary targets that should be achieved toward trafficking in people: the requirement for the state to take strict actions and measures against the culprits and the requirement for a society to think and care about the victims and help them raise their voice against the traffickers or in any way they can do so. As Prof. Bundles says that anticipation is preferable and easier to do over-controlling and battling the crime. To start with, it is imperative that individual nations take a shot at expanding the open door for working in their nations, encouraging the legitimate migration and the most vital is instructing of its subjects. In his book, Ending Slavery: how we free the present slave, Prof. Bundles proposed that local gatherings and school need to get educated about human trafficking. While as citizens of our respective country, we are under a national obligation to protect each other from this felony and care about the victims and impugn this crime. I absolutely concur that education is a ground-breaking weapon against all sorts of violations that incapacitate and annihilate the merit of our society. By cooperating, we can terminate this awful crime that oppresses yearly 2.5 million individuals.
- Human Rights and Human Trafficking: United Nations Human Rights
- “Trafficking in Women and Children in India” a book by the Institute of Social Sciences (New Delhi, India), India. National Human Rights Commission, UNIFEM South Asia Regional Office, New Delhi
- TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS REPORT JUNE 2017: USA State Department
- For News Report
- The Hindu
- Times Of India
- India Today
- New York Times
Johannes Koettl, Human Trafficking, Modern day Slavery, and Economic Exploitation, 2009, SP Discussion Paper No. 0911.
Johannes Koettl, Human Trafficking, Modern day Slavery, and Economic Exploitation, 2009, SP Discussion Paper No. 0911.
Charles Zastrow, Introduction to Social Work and Social Welfare: Empowering People,(Cengage Learning, 06-
Lawrence M. Salinger, ‘Encyclopedia of White-Collar & Corporate Crime’; (SAGE Publications, 03-Aug-2004 ),
Oguzhan Omer Demir,’Characteristics of the Victims, the Traffickers and the Methods of Trafficking of Women
for Sexual Exploitation in Turkey’,(ProQuest, 2008), 9-11
Louise Shelley, ‘Human Trafficking: A Global Perspective’,(Cambridge University Press, 29-Jul-2010), pp.291
Wheaton et. Al 2010 pg. 130
US State Department, Trafficking in Persons Report (2017) p.36
Kevin Bales, “Ending Slavery: how we free today slaves” 2007:94